In 2014, 12.6-percent of U.S. adults had click rain ever tried an e-cigarette, and about 3.7-percent of adults used e-cigarettes daily or some days. Khylstov and his colleagues measured concentrations of 12 aldehydes in aerosols produced by three common e-cigarette devices. To determine whether the flavoring additives affected aldehyde production during vaping, five flavored e-liquids were tested in each device. In addition, two unflavored e-liquids were also tested. "To determine the specific role of the flavoring compounds we fixed all important parameters that could affect aldehyde production and varied only the type and concentration of flavors," explained Vera Samburova, Ph.D., an assistant research professor of chemistry at DRI. Samburova added that the devices used in the study represented three of the most common types of e-cigarettes - bottom and top coil clearomizers, and a cartomizer. The study avoided any variation in puff topography (e.g., puff volume, puff velocity, interval between puffs) by utilizing a controlled sampling system that simulated the most common vaping conditions. E-cigarette vapor was produced from each device by a four-second, 40-ml controlled puff, with 30-second resting periods between puffs. The e-cigarette devices were manually operated to replicate real-life conditions and all samples were collected in triplicate to verify and confirm results. Specific care was taken to avoid "dry puff" conditions.
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